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RED.: CATEDRA ANATOMIA OMULUI DATA 2017 la disciplina ... file1 DATA CATEDRA ANATOMIA OMULUI...

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  • CATEDRA ANATOMIA OMULUI

    Subiecte pentru examenul de promovare

    la disciplina Anatomia omului

    RED.: 1

    DATA

    : 2017

    Pag. 1 / 9

    List of Questions for the examination in Human Anatomy

    Faculty of Medicine, the 1st semester (theory)

    I. General Data 1. Human anatomy as a science, its object of study. Importance of Human Anatomy for medical disciplines.

    2. Traditional and contemporary methods of examination used in Human Anatomy. 3. Historical evolution of the Human Anatomy. Anatomy in ancient period and in the Middle Ages. 4. The role of Renaissance in anatomy development. Leonardo da Vinci and bases of modern anatomy.

    5. Development of anatomy in the XVIII-XX centuries. 6. History of Human Anatomy as a science in Moldova. 7. The main stages of the development of the human body. Development and growth of the body during antenatal period of development (intrauterine period).

    8. Development and growth of the body during postnatal period of development (extrauterine period).

    9. General data concerning norm, variants of norm, abnormalities. 10. Integrity of the human body. Human organism and external environment. 11. Age and its periods. Growth periods of the human organism. Periods of impetuous growth. 12. Constitutional types, applied anatomy concerning typology in medicine. 13. Habitus and stand (posture), their clinical importance. 14. Referent elements (such as planes, axis, lines), used by Human Anatomy and practical medicine. Anatomical language.

    II. General and Special Osteology 15. Bone as an organ, its structure. Structure of the periosteum. The scheme of osteon and a long tubular bone.

    16. The bone functions. 17. Classification of bones according to: their shape, topography, structure, development. 18. Development of bones. 19. Abnormalities of the bony system. 20. Structural characteristic features of the skeleton of the upper and lower limbs, applied anatomy. 21. Structural characteristic features of the bones of the skull (distribution of compact and spongy substance, pneumatization, pillars of resistance) and practical value.

    22. Influence of the external environmental factors on development and postnatal changes of bones. 23. General data concerning vertebral column. General structure of a vertebra, anatomical position. Vertebral abnormalities.

    24. Regional and individual characteristic features of the vertebrae: cervical, thoracic, lumbar. 25. The sacrum and coccyx anatomical position, structure, functions, gender differences, abnormalities.

    26. The breastbone (sternum) and the ribs, anatomical position, structure, abnormalities. Anatomical structures that can be palpated on alive person and applied anatomy.

    27. Bones of the shoulder girdle anatomical position, structure, functions. Referent points on a living person.

  • CATEDRA ANATOMIA OMULUI

    Subiecte pentru examenul de promovare

    la disciplina Anatomia omului

    RED.: 1

    DATA

    : 2017

    Pag. 2 / 9

    28. The humerus external shape, anatomical position, functions. Referent points that can be palpated on a living person.

    29. Bones of the forearm - anatomical position, structure, functions. Exploration on a living person. 30. Bones of the hand classification, topography, structure, functions. Referent points on alive person.

    31. The hip bone - external shape, anatomical position, functions. Referent points that can be palpated on a living person and applied anatomy.

    32. The femur - anatomical position, structure, functions. Exploration on a living person. X-rays anatomy of tubular bones.

    33. Bones of the leg - anatomical position, structure, functions. Referent points that can be palpated on a living person.

    34. Bones of the foot topography, structure, functions. Exploration on a living person. 35. The skull - components and compartments, functional role. Referent points that can be palpated on a living person.

    36. The frontal bone location, anatomical position, parts, structure, functional role. Referent points that can be palpated on a living person.

    37. The sphenoid bone location, anatomical position, parts, orifices, structure, functional role. X-ray examination.

    38. The occipital bone location, anatomical position, parts, structure, functional role. Exploration on a living person.

    39. The parietal bone location, anatomical position, structure, functional role. 40. The ethmoid bone location, anatomical position, parts, structure, functional role. Applied anatomy of the ethmoidal cells.

    41. The temporal bone location, anatomical position, parts, functional role. Clinical aspects regarding its divisions. Exploration on a living person.

    42. The pyramid of the temporal bone: surfaces, margins, structure, functional role. Canals and cavities of the temporal bone, topography and content.

    43. The maxilla location, anatomical position, parts, structure, functional role. Topographical relations of the dental sockets with the maxillary sinus. The hard palate topography and structure.

    44. The palatine bone - anatomical position, parts, structure, functional role. The small bones of the facial skull topography, structure, functional role.

    45. The mandible location, anatomical position, parts, structure, functional role. Referent points that can be palpated on alive person.

    46. Topography of the vault of the skull. The boundary line that separates the vault of the skull from its base. Clinical and anthropometrical aspects concerning the vault of the skull.

    47. Topography of the exobase of the skull. Functional role of the orifices and canals located at the level of the exobase of the skull.

    48. Topography of the endobase. Functional role of the orifices and canals located at the level of the endobase of the skull.

    49. The orbit, position, walls, compartments, communications. 50. The nasal cavity position, walls, compartments, connections. Clinical significance of anatomical knowledge concerning nasal cavity.

  • CATEDRA ANATOMIA OMULUI

    Subiecte pentru examenul de promovare

    la disciplina Anatomia omului

    RED.: 1

    DATA

    : 2017

    Pag. 3 / 9

    51. The paranasal sinuses, position, structure, connections, functions. Relationship between paranasal sinuses and neighbouring anatomical structures, their clinical significance.

    52. The temporal, infratemporal and pterygopalatine fossae location, walls, communications, functional role.

    53. Individual specific features of the skull concerning its shape and dimensions. 54. Gender and age peculiarities of the skull. Postnatal changes of the skull.

    III. General and Special Arthrosyndesmology 55. Arthrosyndesmology general data, classification of the joints (scheme), exploration on a living person.

    56. Synarthroses general characteristics, types of synarthroses, examples. 57. Diarthroses - general characterization, main and auxiliary elements of joints, examples (scheme of a diarthrosis).

    58. Uniaxial, biaxial and multiaxial joints, variants, examples. 59. Biomechanics of joints. Factors that influence joints mobility. Notion of goniometry. 60. Congruence of the articular surfaces. Factors that contribute to shaping of the articular surfaces. 61. Joints of the bones of the skull. The temporomandibular joint, structure, muscles that influence the joint, movements, exploration on a living person.

    62. The atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints - structure, classification, muscles that influence the joints, movements.

    63. Joints between the vertebrae - structure, classification, muscles that influence the joint, movements.

    64. The vertebral column as a whole. Movements of the vertebral column and muscles that influence them.

    65. Joints of the ribs with the sternum and with the vertebrae - structure, muscles that influence the joints, movements.

    66. Thoracic cage as a whole, shapes of the thorax, excursions of the thorax and muscles that influence the movements. Bony and muscular landmarks of the thorax.

    67. Joints of the shoulder girdle bones structure, movements and muscles that influence the joints. 68. The shoulder joint - structure, movements muscles that influence the joint, radiological image. 69. The elbow joint - structure, movements muscles that influence the joint, radiological image. 70. Joints between the bones of the forearm - structure, movements, muscles that influence the joints.

    71. The radiocarpal (wrist) joint - structure, movements, muscles that influence the joint, radiological image.

    72. Joints between the bones of the hand - classification, movements muscles that influence the joint. The hard foundation of the hand.

    73. Joints of the pelvic girdle, structure, movements. Proper syndesmoses of the pelvis. 74. Pelvis as a whole walls, compartments, apertures, orifices. Gender differences of the pelvis, notion of the pelvimetry.

    75. Dimensions of the female pelvis, applied anatomy and clinical significance. Conductive (obstetrical) axis and inclination of the pelvis.

    76. The hip joint - structure, movements muscles that action the joint. X-rays image of the hip joint.

  • CATEDRA ANATOMIA OMULUI

    Subiecte pentru examenul de promovare

    la disciplina Anatomia omului

    RED.: 1

    DATA

    : 2017

    Pag. 4 / 9

    77. The knee joint - structure, muscles which move it, X-rays image. 78. Joints between the bones of the leg, their structure. 79. The talocrural (ankle) joint - structure, movements, muscles that influence the joint. 80. Joints of the foot bones structure, movements, muscles that action the joints. 81. The foot as a whole. The arches of the foot. The hard f

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