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Radulescu Andreea ES Introduction to Freemasonry

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    garrisons of Sepsiszentgyrgy and Cskszereda. On 23 February 1783 Horea, who led a

    peasant revolt the following year, gave a Romanian-language speech at the True

    Understanding Lodge in Vienna, in which he used a series of Masonic symbols (it is highly

    likely that he was initiated). In 1795, by imperial decree, Masonic activity was outlawed in

    the Habsburg empire, including Transylvania. In Wallachia, the first lodge was very likely

    established by Jean Louis Carra, secretary to voivode Grigore III Ghica (October 1768-

    November 1769).

    In advance of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848, a Freemason-inspired secret

    society known as Fria ("The Brotherhood") was set up. Ion Ghica, Nicolae Blcescu,

    Christian Tell, Dimitrie Bolintineanu, Cezar Bolliac, Constantin Daniel Rosenthal, C. A.

    Rosetti, Dimitrie and Ion Brtianu, Alexandru G. Golescu and others belonged to Fria

    and were at the forefront of the revolution. Freemasons such as Vasile Alecsandri, MihailKoglniceanu and Alexandru Ioan Cuza were active in the revolution in Moldavia that

    year. The union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859 featured involvement by Freemasons

    from the Principalities and from exile. Cuza, domnitor of the new polity, governed on

    Masonic principles but nevertheless came into conflict with certain prominent boyars, who,

    like him, belonged to the Steaua Dunrii Lodge in Bucharest. These individuals,

    dissatisfied with Cuza's actions, organised a plot to dethrone him, but when this was

    uncovered in 1865, the prince shut down the Lodge without taking measures against the plotters. Thus Cuza dissolved his own Lodge on the pretext that its establishment in nine

    years earlier had not been officially approved. Not coincidentally, the three officers who

    presented Cuza with his act of abdication the following year were Freemasons. The

    Junimea literary society, connected with Steaua Dunrii and publishing journals such as

    Gazeta de Iai (1867), Convorbiri literare (1867), Gazeta literar (1871) and Constituiunea

    (1886), played an important cultural role.

    Romania's Lodges were unified on 8/20 September 1880, when the National Lodge

    was founded with Constantin Moroiu as Grand Master. Conflict ensued between the

    National Lodge and certain Moldavian Lodges, as the former indirectly refused to admit

    Jews, who were concentrated in Moldavia. Cuza's successor, Carol I, refused suggestions

    that he become a Freemason and take the reins of the National Lodge, indeed ordering the

    closure of the Lodge in Brila, which counted wealthy Jewish and Greek merchants among

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    its members. Romanian Freemasons helped promote international recognition for the

    Union of Transylvania with Romania in 1918.

    On 12 November 1925 the Great Orient of Romania, which functioned alongside

    the Grand National Lodge. In 1934, these two merged with the Grand Symbolic Lodge of

    Transylvania to form the United Romanian Freemasonry, led by Mihail Sadoveanu and

    under American obedience. During the 1930s, Freemasonry was openly attacked in

    Romania, chiefly by A. C. Cuza, head of the National-Christian Defense League; the Iron

    Guard; and the Romanian Orthodox Church. On 11 March 1937, the church's Holy Synod

    approved an anti-Masonic study prepared by Nicolae Blan, Metropolitan of Transylvania;

    this targeted Jews, who "have a preponderant, even a dominant role in Freemasonry" and

    concluded that "Freemasonry is a secret global organisation in which the Jews have a

    significant role; it has a quasi-religious rite, fighting against the religious-moral concepts of Christianity, against the monarchic and national principle, in order to establish an

    international secular republic. It is an expression of moral decay, of social disorder. The

    Church condemns Freemasonry as a doctrine, as an organisation and as a method of occult

    workings". As a result of these attacks, Romanian Freemasonry dissolved itself in 1937.

    Masonic historiography blames King Carol II, himself a Freemason, for having taken a

    decision to shut down the group with the support of Patriarch Miron Cristea (another

    Freemason) in order to rule as absolute monarch (which he began to do the following year).

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    Simbolurile Francmasoneriei

    Cele Trei Mari Lumini ale Francmasoneriei Regulare sunt Cartea Legii Sacre, Echerul

    si Compasul. Luate impreuna, ele reprezinta un simbol al vietii masonice, deoarece nici o

    Loja regulara nu-si poate deschide tinuta si nu poate lucra fara prezenta lor.

    Cartea Legii Sacre

    Cartea Legii Sacre este simbolul Traditiei.

    Echerul si Compasul

    Sunt simbolurile de baza ale masoneriei, necesare pentru ridicarea unor edificii stabile si

    drepte. Prin analogie, devin simboluri ale virtutii si constiintei care conduc la

    perfectionarea spiritului.

    Echerul, emblema rectitudinii, ne inspira dreptatea in gandurile si actiunile noastre - el este

    simbolul Legii Morale.

    Compasul, instrument de masura si de comparatie, ne permite sa apreciem influenta si

    consecintele faptelor noastre, ce trebuie sa fie in permanenta fraterne fata de toti semenii

    nostri.

    Echerul simbolizeaza sinceritatea si justitia intentiei, a hotararii si a operei, adica reprezinta

    o obligatie, o norma imuabila, in vreme ce Compasul semnifica hotararea, capacitatea,geniul.

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    Firul cu Plumb si Nivela

    In timp ce Nivela asigura uniformitatea unei suprafete, Firul cu Plumb asigura

    perpendicularitatea si unghiurile drepte la acea suprafata.

    Nivela semnifica capacitatea de a construi un sistem de referinta si prin aceasta de

    imbogatire spirituala, reprezentand in acelasi timp destinul comun al Mortii.

    Un simplu plumb este un instrument de precizie uimitoare. De la case la catedrale, acest

    instrument simplu indica verticalitatea si rectitudinea necesare pentru a obtine perfectiunea.

    Firul cu Plumb este elementul de echilibru si sugereaza ideea ascensiunii stabile si liniare,

    trasand o linie verticala infinita care conduce la perfectiune.

    Ciocanul si Dalta

    Ciocanul de Spart Piatra reprezinta forta vointei. Dalta simbolizeaza Discernamantul, adica

    capacitatea de a distinge partile utile ale pietrei, esentiale pentru construire, de cele inutile.

    Combinarea fortei vointei cu a capacitatii de a discerne determina perfectionarea treptata a

    operei.

    Astfel, in timp ce Ciocanul exprima vointa de a obtine, Dalta simbolizeaza constiinta a ceea

    ce trebuie evitat. Luate impreuna, cele doua instrumente semnifica necesitatea de a uniactiunea cu gandul.

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    Piatra Bruta si Piatra Slefuita

    In sens metaforic, piatra se identifica cu masonul. Lucrarea masonica a masurarii si

    lustruirii pietrei brute corespunde cu transformarea masonului, pentru a trece de la stadiul

    brut, inconstient si pasiv al profanului la stadiul regulat, creativ si constient al masonului

    liber. Asa cum Patra Bruta nu este potrivita pentru constructia unei catedrale pentru ca

    produce instabilitate si dizarmonie, la fel Piatra Slefuita, regulata si cubica, se aseamana in

    unicitatea ei cu alte pietre lucrate la fel si contribuie la ridicarea Templului.

    In consecinta, un mason trabuie lucreze pentru binele si progresul tarii si al umanitatii,

    perfectionandu-se in acelasi timp pe sine insusi.

    Rigla cu 24 de Diviziuni

    Rigla cu 24 de Diviziuni, emblema perfectiunii si a ordinii care rezulta din actiunea justa si

    echilibrata, este din timpuri stravechi instrumentul de comparatie a marimii si de masurare

    a armoniei proportiilor. Citata in Biblie, era chiar instrumentul cu care divinitatea egipteana

    Ptah masura cresterea apelor Nilului si semnifica norma.

    Rigla cu 24 de Diviziuni este si simbolul celor 24 de ore ale zilei, dintre care o parte ar

    trebuie dedicata gandului, una lucrului, una odihnei si una celor care au nevoie de ajutor.

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    Mistria

    Mistria este instrumentul zidarului care serveste la indreptarea materialului pietros,

    simbolizeaza binefacerea, precum si dorinta de a-i ajuta pe cei care au nevoie. Exprima

    bunatatea activa, caritatea, dar si vointa omului.

    Iubirea fraterna care creeaza coeziunea intre pietre este precum mortarul - moale si capabil

    sa ia orice forma, rezistent fara a fi rigid, cand leaga partile in interiorul constructiei.Mistria

    serveste la amestecarea mortarului pana la obtinerea amalgamului perfect, la eliminarea

    excesului - la raspandirea binecuvantarii iluminate si a tolerantei generoase. Din acest

    motiv, este instrumentul preferat al Masonului in actiunea sa constanta si pozitiva de

    edificator activ.

    Acacia

    Acacia (Salcamul), este un simbol important al francmasoneriei, referindu-se la principiul

    nemuririi gradului de Maestru. Originea acestui simbol este legata de mitul lui Hiram,

    arhitectul Templului lui Solomon din Ierusalim. Dupa moartea sa, asasinii sai i-au ascuns

    cadavrul in pamant, dar pe locul unde a fost ingropat a rasarit un fir de salcam care i-a

    relevat prezenta, simbolizand in acelasi timp si renasterea la o noua viata.

    Salcamul este simbolul sperantei si al existentei sufletului dincolo de moartea fizica si

    conservarea energiei indestructibile a vietii.

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    Soarele si Luna

    Soarele este asociat cu o serie de valente simbolice, intre care aceea a dinamicii axiale, a

    corespondentei Soare-Spirit-Foc, aceea a caldurii si adevarului, a purificarii, a vitejiei, a

    ghidului inimii umane. Soarele se identifica cu Masculinul, cu principiul activ, fiind de

    aceea simbolul Originii, al Inceputului, al ratiunii care lumineaza tenebrele si ilumineaza

    spiritele. Luna simbolizeaza Femininul, obscurul, intuitia, caracterul schimbator al

    formelor. Semnifica si privarea omului care si-a pierdut demnitatea primordiala. De

    asemenea, mai reprezinta si imaginea mediatorului intre fortele celeste, pentru ca reflecta

    lumina soarelui.

    In sens masonic, Soarele si Luna reprezinta alternanta si echilibrul intre zi si noapte, intre

    alb si negru, intre activitate si repaos, dialectica contrariilor.

    Symbols of Freemasonry

    The Three Great Lights of Regular Freemasonry are the Volume of Sacred Law, the

    Square and the Compass. Taken together, they represent a symbol of Masonic life, because

    no regular Lodge can open the Craft without their presence.

    The Volume of Sacred Law

    The Volume of Sacred Law is a symbol of Tradition.

    The Square and Compass

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    Basic symbols of Masonry are necessary for raising stable and straight buildings.

    By analogy, they become symbols of virtue and consciousness leading to spiritual

    perfection.

    The Square inspire us justice in our thoughts and actions - it is a symbol of Moral

    Law.

    The Compass, is a measurement and comparison tool, allowing us to appreciate the

    influence and consequences of our actions, which must be constantly brotherly to all our

    peers.

    The Square symbolizes sincerity and justice in our intention, decision, and work;

    this is an obligation, an immutable rule, while Compass signifies determination, ability,

    genius.

    The Level and Plumb

    As the level insures evenness of a surface, the plumb insures perpendicularity and

    right angles to that surface.

    The Level means the ability to build a reference system and thus spiritual

    enrichment, while representing the common destiny of Death.

    A simple plumb is an instrument of amazing accuracy. From homes to cathedrals,this simple tool points the way upward and indicates the straightness needed to obtain

    perfection. The Plumb Line is the element of balance and suggests the idea of stable and

    linear ascension, drawing an infinite vertical line which leads to perfection.

    The Hammer and Chisel

    The Hammer is the force of will. The Chisels symbolizes discernment, ie the ability

    to distinguish relevant parts of the stone essential for the building of unnecessary ones.

    Combining the strength of will and the ability to discern cause gradual improvement of the

    work.

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    Thus, while the Hammer express willingness to obtain, the Chisels symbolizes the

    consciousness of what should be avoided. Taken together, the two instruments means the

    need to join the action with thought.

    Raw stone and polished stone

    In the metaphorical sense, Stone identifies with Mason. The Masonic work of

    measuring and polishing the stone corresponds with Mason's transformation to switch from

    profane's raw, unconscious and liabile state, to regular, creative and aware state of free

    mason.

    Because Raw stone is not suitable for the construction of a cathedral producing

    instability and disharmony, Polished stone, regular, cubic, is similar in its uniqueness withother stones similarly crafted contributing to raising the Temple.

    The Ruler with 24 divisions

    The Ruler with 24 divisions, the symbol of perfection and order of the fair and

    balanced actions, is from ancient times the size comparison tool for measuring the harmony

    and proportions. Quoted in the Bible, was actually the tool used by Egyptian Deity Ptah tomeasure Nile's water level and mean the norm.

    The Ruler with 24 divisions is the symbol of the 24-hour day, some of which would

    be dedicated to thought, some to work, some to rest and some to those in need of help.

    The Trowel

    Mason trowel is the tool that serves to straighten the rocky material, symbolizes

    kindness, and willingness to help those in need. Express active goodness, charity, and

    human will.

    Brotherly love which creates cohesion between stones is like mortar - soft and able

    to take any form, strong without being rigid, when connecting the parts inside the building.

    The Trowel serves up for mixing the mortar to obtain a perfect amalgam, to remove excess

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    - to spread the enlightened blessings and generous tolerance. For this reason, it is the

    preferred tool of Mason in his constant and positive action of active builder.

    Acacia

    Acacia, is an important symbol of Freemasonry, referring to the principle of Master

    Mason of immortality. The origin of this symbol is related to the myth of Hiram, the

    architect of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem. After his death, his killers has hidden the body

    in the ground, but where he was buried has sprung an accacia thread that has revealed the

    presence of the body, while symbolizing the rebirth to a new life.

    Acacia is a symbol of hope and the existence of the soul beyond physical death and

    conservation of indestructible energy of life.

    The Sun and The Moon

    The Sun is associated with a series of symbolic meanings, so the dynamics between

    the axial correspondence Sun-Fire-Spirit, that heat and truth, the purification, the bravery,

    the guide of the human heart. The Sun is identified with masculinity, with the active

    principle, it is the symbol of origin, of beginning, of the reason that illuminates thedarkness and spirits. The Moon symbolizes feminity, obscure, intuition, changeable nature

    of forms. It signifies also the human deprivation and the lost of dignity. Also, it means the

    mediator image between the celestial forces, because it reflects the sunlight.

    In the Masonic sense, the Sun and Moon is alternation and balance between day

    and night, between black and white, between activity and rest, the dialectic of opposites.

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    Femeile si Masoneria

    Marele Maestru al Marii Loji Naionale a Romniei, Tudorel Niulescu, explic ntr-un interviu pentru cotidianul.ro de ce nu sunt primite femeile n masoneria deRit Scoian Antic i Acceptat. De asemenea, Tudorel Niulescu vorbete desprecalitatea oamenilor din masonerie, despre importana istoric a masonerieiprecum i despre viitorul acesteia.

    Domnule Tudorel Niulescu de ce nu sunt primite femeile n masoneria de

    Rit Scoian Antic i Acceptat?

    La fel de greu de rspuns este i la ntrebarea de ce femeile nu au acces naltarul bisericii. n religia ortodox, femeile nu intr n altar, n masoneria de RitScoian Antic i Acceptat, femeile nu sunt acceptate la iniiere. Pe de alt parte ns, n mod administrativ, pentru a nu crea un refuz pe care nu-l poi justifica,exist i n Romnia o mare loj naional feminin, dar mai ales o mare lojfeminin de stil orient francez, pe care noi o susinem, o recunoatemadministrativ. Refuzul vine din cutume de sute de ani pe care trebuie s lerespectm, mai ales pe acestea de Rit Scoian Antic i Acceptat.

    Sunt persoane care au intrat n masonerie spernd c mai apoi vor obine

    anumite beneficii. Este masoneria un cec n alb?

    Foarte important este calitatea celor care vor s intre n masonerie. Este poatei unul dintre necazurile noastre n ultimii 20 de ani. Au intrat prea muli n

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    masonerie, care practic nu tiau ce se ntmpl. Suntrem n Marea LojNaional cteva sute. Nu m grbesc s devenim cu miile i vreau ca evoluianoastr s fie una care pleac de la principii calitative i nu cantitative. Dejaporile ncep s se nchid pentru cei care nu merit s intre. Din start le spuncelor care se gndesc c vor obine avantaje mai bine s nu mai fac cererile deaderare.

    Women and Freemasonry

    The Grand Master of the Romanian National Grand Lodge, Tudorel Nitulescu, explains for cotidianul.ro why women are not allowed in the The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. He also talks about the quality of men from within the Masonry, about itsthe historical importance and also about its future.

    Mr. Tudorel Nitulescu, why are women not allowed in the The Ancient and

    Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry?

    It is as difficult to answer as to the question of why are women not allowed in achurchs altar. In orthodox religion, women cannot enter the altar, In The Ancientand Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, women are not allowed at theinitiation. On the other hand though, for avoiding a refuse which cannot be justified, there is a Feminine National Lodge in Romania, but above all, afeminine grand lodge in the French Orient style, that we support andadministratively accept. This refuse comes from a hundred years tradition thatwe must respect, especially this one of The Ancient and Accepted Rite.

    There are certain persons that have entered within the Masonry hoping

    they will obtain benefits. Is Masonry a white check?

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    The quality of the men who want to enter the Masonry is vey important. Perhapsit is one of our misfortunes for the last 20 years. Too many have entered theMasonry, that did not know what was happening. In the National Grand Lodgewe are hundreds. I do not rush into becoming thounsands and I want our evolution to be one that starts from quality principle and not quantity. The gatesare starting to close for those who are not worthy. I am advising those that thinkthey will obtain certain benefits, not to make the adhesion request.

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    The Charges of a Freemason

    I. Concerning god and religion.

    A Mason is oblig'd by his Tenure, to obey the moral Law; and if he rightly

    understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious Libertine. But

    though in ancient Times Masons were charg'd in every Country to be of the Religion of thatCountry or Nation, whatever it was, yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige

    them to that Religion in which all Men agree, leaving their particular Opinions to

    themselves; that is, to be good Men and true, or Men of Honour and Honesty, by whatever

    Denominations or Persuasions they may be distinguish'd; whereby Masonry becomes the

    Center of Union, and the Means of conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must

    have remain'd at a perpetual Distance.

    II. Of the civil magistrates supreme and subordinate.

    A Mason is a peaceable Subject to the Civil Powers, wherever he resides or works,

    and is never to be concern'd in Plots and Conspiracies against the Peace and Welfare of the

    Nation, nor to behave himself undutifully to inferior Magistrates; for as Masonry hath been

    always injured by War, Bloodshed, and Confusion, so ancient Kings and Princes have been

    much dispos'd to encourage the Craftsmen, because of their Peaceableness and Loyalty,

    whereby they practically answer'd the Cavils of their Adversaries, and promoted the

    Honour of the Fraternity, who ever flourish'd in Times of Peace. So that if a Brother should

    be a Rebel against the State he is not to be countenanc'd in his Rebellion, however he may

    be pitied as an unhappy Man; and, if convicted of no other Crime though the loyal

    Brotherhood must and ought to disown his Rebellion, and give no Umbrage or Ground of

    political Jealousy to the Government for the time being; they cannot expel him from the

    Lodge, and his Relation to it remains indefeasible.

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    III. Of lodges.

    A lodge is a place where Masons assemble and work: Hence that Assembly, or duly

    organiz'd Society of Masons, is call'd a lodge, and every Brother ought to belong to one,

    and to be subject to its By-Laws and the general regulations.It is either particular or

    general, and will be best understood by attending it, and by the Regulations of the General

    or Grand Lodge hereunto annex'd. In ancient Times, no Master or Fellow could be absent

    from it especially when warn'd to appear at it, without incurring a sever Censure, until it

    appear'd to the Master and Wardens that pure Necessity hinder'd him.

    The persons admitted Members of a Lodge must be good and true Men, free-born,

    and of mature and discreet Age, no Bondmen no Women, no immoral or scandalous men,

    but of good Report.

    IV. Of Masters, wardens, Fellows and Apprentices.

    All preferment among Masons is grounded upon real Worth and personal Merit

    only; that so the Lords may be well served, the Brethren not put to Shame, nor the Royal

    Craft despis'd: Therefore no Master or Warden is chosen by Seniority, but for his Merit. It

    is impossible to describe these things in Writing, and every Brother must attend in his

    Place, and learn them in a way peculiar to this Fraternity: Only Candidates may know that

    no Master should take an Apprentice unless he has sufficient Imployment for him, and

    unless he be a perfect Youth having no Maim or Defect in his Body that may render himuncapable of learning the Art of serving his Master's Lord, and of being made a Brother,

    and then a Fellow-Craft in due time, even after he has served such a Term of Years as the

    Custom of the Country directs; and that he should be descended of honest Parents; that so,

    when otherwise qualify'd he may arrive to the Honour of being the warden, and then the

    Master of the Lodge, the Grand Warden, and at length the grand master of all the Lodges,

    according to his Merit.

    No Brother can be a warden until he has pass'd the part of a Fellow-Craft; nor a

    master until he has acted as a Warden, nor grand warden until he has been Master of a

    Lodge, nor Grand Master unless he has been a Fellow-Craft before his Election, who is

    also to be nobly born, or a Gentleman of the best Fashion, or some eminent Scholar, or

    some curious Architect, or other Artist, descended of honest Parents, and who is of similar

    great Merit in the Opinion of the Lodges. And for the better, and easier, and more

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    honourable Discharge of his Office, the Grand-Master has a Power to chuse his own deputy

    grand-master, who must be then, or must have been formerly, the Master of a particular

    Lodge, and has the Privilege of acting whatever the grand master, his Principal, should act,

    unless the said Principal be present, or interpose his Authority by a Letter.

    These Rulers and Governors, supreme and subordinate, of the ancient Lodge, are to

    be obey'd in their respective Stations by all the Brethren, according to the old Charges and

    Regulations, with all Humility, Reverence, Love and Alacrity.

    Indatoririle unui Mason

    I. In ceea ce priveste pe Dumnezeu si religia.

    Un Mason este obligat prin tinuta sa, sa se supuna legilor moralei, si daca intelege

    corect Arta Regala, el nu va fi niciodata un ateu stupid, nici un libertin fara de religie.

    Indiferent de religia Fratelui si de felul credintei sale, acesta nu va fi exclus din Ordin,

    deoarece el crede in gloriosul Arhitect al Raiului si Pamantului si practica sacrele indatoriri

    ale moralitatii. Masonii imbina virtutile puterii de a convinge cu legaturile dragosteifratesti.

    II. Despre Magistratii civili supremi si subordonati.

    Un Mason este un om obisnuit in fata autoritatilor civile, oriunde s-ar afla sau ar

    munci si nu trebuie niciodata sa fie implicat in conspiratii sau comploturi impotriva pacii si

    bunastarii natiunii sale sau tarii care il gazduieste si nici sa se poarte intr-un mod nedemn

    fata de magistrati. El se va conforma cu draga inima oricarei autoritati legislative, va

    sustine in orice ocazie interesul comunitatii si va promova zelos, prosperitatea tarii lui. Prin

    natura lor masonii sunt meniti sa promoveze pacea, sa cultive armonia si sa traiasca in buna

    intelegere si dragoste frateasca.

    III. Despre loji

    O LOJA este un Templu al Artei Regale unde Masonii se aduna pentru a lucra, a se

    instrui si a aprofunda, in mod ritual, misterele vietii. Fiecare Frate trebuie sa apartina unei

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    Loje si sa se supuna Regulamentelor acelei Loje, Constitutiei si Regulamentelor Generale

    ale Ordinului. Din timpuri stravechi, nici un Maestru, Calfa sau Ucenic nu poate lipsi de la

    Tinuta Lojei fara a fi sever mustrat, mai ales atunci cand este convocat, mai putin in cazul

    in care Venerabilul sau Supraveghetorul considera ca lipsa s-a produs din pura necesitate.

    Persoanele care au calitatea de Maestri Masoni sau cele admise in primele doua

    Grade de Ucenic si Calfa ai unei Loji trebuie sa fie oameni buni si cinstiti, nascuti liberi, de

    varsta matura, cu gandire sanatoasa, morali, toti cu un cazier fara pata.

    IV. Despre Venerabili, Demnitari, Membri si Ucenici.

    Orice avansare in Fratia Masonica se bazeaza pe meritul personal si straduinta

    fiecaruia, astfel incat Marele Arhitect sa fie bine servit, in conditiile in care Fratii nu se vor

    face de rusine cu cunostintele lor si nici Arta Regala nu va fi desconsiderata. De aceea, nici

    un Venerabil sau Demnitar nu este ales de catre Maestri decat dupa meritele personale si nudupa serenitate. Candidatii ar trebui sa stie, fara doar si poate, ca nici un Maestru nu va

    propune sporul de salariu pentru un Ucenic sau o Calfa daca acesta nu a lucrat suficient

    timp cu el, insusindu-si cu asiduitate invatamintele gradului in care a fost admis prin ritual.

    Nici un Frate nu poate fi Demnitar daca nu este Maestru, nici Maestru Venerabil

    daca nu a functionat ca Demnitar, nici Mare Demnitar, pana n-a fost Maestru Venerabil al

    unei Loji, nici Mare Maestru, daca n-a fost Mare Demnitar inainte de alegerea sa, si care

    trebuie sa fi fost un Frate Maestru Venerabil de cea mai buna calitate. Si spre binele,usurinta si eleganta indeplinirii sarcinilor sale, Marele Maestru are puterea de a-si alege

    propriul Mare Maestru Adjunct, care trebuie sa fie, sau sa fi fost inainte, Maestru al unei

    Loji si care are privilegiul de a actiona in acelasi mod in care ar actiona Marele Maestru, cu

    exceptia cazurilor cand acesta este prezent sau isi interpune autoritatea in scris.

    Acestor diriguitori si guvernanti supremi si subordonati ai vechii Loji urmeaza sa li

    supuna, corespunzator functiilor lor, toti confratii, in conformitate cu sarcinile si

    regulamentele respective, in mod cuviincios, reverentios si cu dragoste.

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    GLOSSARY

    Term Context DefinitionAcacia The Acacia tree is the symbol of Master Masons. The timber of the Shittim tree, widely

    used in making the sacred furniture of the Temple. In speculative Masonry,the term is used as a symbol of theimmortality of the soul.

    Accord The profane has made his accord and he is now one of us. To make to conform or agree; bringinto harmony. Required of all Masonsin order to attain true Brotherhood.

    Altar Come at the Altar and make your oath. The altar holds the central place in theLodge room of Freemasons. Lying onthe altar is the Holy bible, the

    principal Light of Masons, which isopen during the work of the Lodge.

    Here, Masons voluntarily kneel andassume the oaths and obligations of the several Degrees.

    Apprentice The first degree in freemasonry is the Entered Apprentice. In Latin apprehendre meant to layhold of a thing in the sense of learningto understand it, the origin of our "apprehend." This became contractedinto apprendre and was applied to ayoung man beginning to learn a trade.The latter term came into circulationamong European languages and,through the Operative Masons, gaveus our "apprentice," that is, one who is

    beginning to learn Masonry. An"Entered Apprentice" is one whose

    name has been entered in the books of the Lodge.

    Comes from the Latin wordapprehendre meaning "to grasp tomaster a thing" Hence the leaner

    Apron The Entered Apprentices apron has to be white, with nosymbols.

    In early English, napron was used of acloth, a tablecloth, whence our napery,napkin; it apparently was derived fromthe Latin map pa, the source of "map.""Apron is a misdivided form of "anapron," and meant a cloth, more

    particularly a cloth tied on in front to protect the clothes. The OperativeMasons wore a leather apron out of necessity; when the craft becamespeculative this garment, so longidentified with building work wasretained as the badge of Masons; alsoas a symbol of purity, a meaningattached to it, probably, incomparatively recent times, though of this one cannot be certain.

    The badge of a Mason. Originally

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    Term Context Definitionamong priesthoods as a badge of office and a means of ornamentation.The Masonic apron should be whitelambskin, fourteen inches wide andtwelve inches deep. From the Frenchword napron meaning "an apron of cloth." From earliest times in Persia,Egypt, India, the Jewish Essenes, thewhite apron was a badge of honor andcandidates were invested with it, or asash, or a robe. Its reference is to

    purity of heart, to innocence of conduct.

    The use of an apron or someequivalent investiture, as a mysticsymbol, was common among AncientMasons. Hence, in the First Degree of Freemasonry, the initiate, at hisinitiation and not at some subsequenttime, is presented with the pure whitelambskin apron as a reminder of that

    purity of life and rectitude of conductwhich is so essentially necessary to hisgaining admission into the CelestialLodge above where the SupremeArchitect of the Universe residesforever. This apron becomes his

    permanent property as the "badge of aFreemason." As he advances inMasonry, he may receive other apronsof varying types, but never one thatequals this first one in emblematicsignificance and Masonic value.

    Bible The Bible is one of the three Major Lights in a Lodge Masons accept this Book and believe

    in it as the Law of God, as the GreatLight of Freemasonry. It is an openBook on the altar during all work of the Lodge, and certain appropriate

    passages are used for the differentDegrees.

    Brethren The brethren have to help each other. The term is used in speaking of Masons, and in this connection is

    preferable to "brothers."Brother The Entered Apprentice is now our Brother. Lets welcome

    him !his word is one of the oldest, as it isone of the most beautiful, in anylanguage. Nobody knows where or when it originated, but it is certain thatit existed in the Sanskrit, in a formstrikingly similar to that used by us. In

    Greek it was phrater, in the Latinfrater, whence our "fraternal" and"fraternalism." It has always meantmen from the same parents, or menknit by very close blood ties. Whenassociated with "initiation, which lasthe general meaning of "being borninto," one can see how appropriate isits k use in Freemasonry. All of ushave, through initiation in our

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    Term Context Definition"mother" Lodges, been born into aMasonry and therefore we are"brothers," and that which holds ustogether in one great family is the"Mystic Tie," the Masonic analogue of the blood tie among kinsmen.

    Charity Freemasonry has done lots of charity actions. The three great cardinal virtues areFaith, Hope and Love. Charity as anact of genuine, heart-felt love is soclosely related that it is sometimesemployed in the place of Love, and isregarded as one of the three greatcardinal virtues. Charity in its variousimplications and forms of action holda high place in the life of everyFreemason.

    Clothing The clothing has to be proper, each brother has to wear anapron and white gloves.

    It has always been the custom amongall peoples for designated officers,leaders, and people of rank to wear special regalia or a particular type of clothing which indicates a person'sofficial position. Based on this customand upon Biblical examples, and for reasons of dignity and beauty, Masonsfollow this practice.

    Coffin The coffin is used in a 3 rd degree ritual. Symbolizes "death to the old life"; thisdeath is necessary before one can take

    part in the mysteries of Freemasonryand enter upon its duties. Like the"Phoenix," the resurrection to a newlife is inferred. The "Coffin"containing the remains of a deceasedfriend and Brother reminds Masonsthat we are the custodians of a greatheritage passed along to us in the story

    of the "Hiramic Legend".Columns The columns are situated at the entrance. 1.Represent the wardens.2.Represent Jachin and Boaz. Whilethe lodge is at work the columns areerect and horizontal, respectively;while on refreshment, such positionsare reversed.

    Common Gavel The common gavel is my tool. The "Common Gavel" is aninstrument made use of by operativeMasons to break off the corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder's use, but we as Free andAccepted Masons, are taught to use itfor the more noble and glorious

    purpose of divesting our hearts andconsciences of the vices andsuperfluities of life, thereby fitting our minds as living stones for that spiritual

    building - that house not made withhands - eternal in the heavens.

    Compass The compass is one of the Lights. A mathematical instrument for dividing and drawing circles;

    Degree There are 3 degrees, Entered Apprentice, Companion andMaster.

    The Latin gradus from which arederived grade, gradual, graduation,etc., meant a step, or set of steps,

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    Term Context Definition particularly of a stair; when unitedwith the prefix, da, meaning "down,"it became degradus, and referred tosteps, degrees, progress by markedstages. From this came our "degree,"which is a step, or grade, in the

    progress of a candidate toward theconsummation of his membership.Our habit of picturing the degrees as

    proceeding from lower to higher, likeclimbing a stair, is thus very close tothe ancient and original meaning of the word.

    Dove The white dove is a Masonic symbol. The "Dove" in early Masonry is asymbol of Noah's messenger. Inancient symbolism, the Doverepresented purity and innocence andwas often seen bearing an olive

    branch.East The Grand Master stays at the East. From the Sun worshipers down

    through the ages, the East has always been considered the most honored place because the sun rises in the Eastand is the region from which lightrises.Lodge halls or rooms are oblong fromEast to West; candidates travel fromthe West to the East in search of Light.

    EnteredApprentice

    The first degree is represented by the Entered Apprentice. In Operative Masonry theapprenticeship lasted seven years; if then found acceptable, theapprentices name was entered on the

    books of the lodge and he was given arecognized place in the craft

    organization.Free In order to become a mason, one has to be a free man. The origin of the use of the term"free" in speculative Masonry is in thefact that the operative Masons whoworked on King Solomon's Templewere exempted from imposts, dutiesand taxes as were their descendants.They were, therefore, declared to be"free."

    Freemasons Freemasons are free men. The early builders in OperativeMasonry times were free men, notserfs or bondsmen and were free tomove from one place to another astheir work demanded. Thus, theycame to be called "Freemasons."One who has been initiated into themysteries of the Fraternity of Freemasonry.

    Freemasonry "Freemasonry is a beautiful system of morality, veiled inallegory, and illustrated by symbols." -- Hemming

    Masonry, according to the generalacceptation of the term, is an artfounded on the principles of geometry,and directed to the service andconvenience of mankind. ButFreemasonry, embracing a wider range and having a nobler object in

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    Term Context Definitionview, namely, the cultivation andimprovement of the human mind, maywith propriety be called a science,inasmuch as availing itself of theterms of the former, it inculcates the

    principles of the purest morality,though its lessons are for the most partveiled in allegory, and illustrated bysymbols.

    Great Lights The Great lights stay on the altar. The Holy Bible, Square andCompasses. The Bible represents thewill of God, the Square is the physicallife of man and the Compassesrepresents the moral and spiritual life.

    Jachin Jachin and Boaz are the two columns at the entrance. Comes from two Hebrew wordsmeaning "God will establish." Jachinis a combination of two words, Jah,the poetical name of Jehovah, andiachin, meaning establishment. Thefull significance of the name is,therefore, "With God's help toestablish," the symbolical meaninggiven to in the work of Freemasonry.The two great pillars of Solomon'sTemple supporting the Great Porch,known as Solomon's Porch, werecalled Boaz and Jachin, Jachin beingthe right hand pillar facing eastward,that is, on the south.

    Knowledge Knowledge is light, dear Brethren. In the dualism of Freemasonry,knowledge is symbolized by light, asignorance is by darkness. To beinitiated, to receive light is to acquireknowledge; and the cry of theneophyte for light is the natural

    aspiration of the soul for knowledge.Landmark The landmarks of Masonry are those principles by which theCraft is bounded.

    In ancient times, it was customary tomark the boundaries of lands by themeans of stone pillars or heaps of stones. The removal of suchlandmarks was a grievous crime andan evidence of fraudulent intent by theoffender. In speculative Masonry thereare also ancient and universal customsof the Order which gradually grewinto operation as rules of action, andthe same rigid rule with reference toancient landmarks applies to these.

    Light Let the candidate see the Light now. Throughout the ritual and work of Freemasonry, Light is the symbol of knowledge, and just as God spoke intoexistence physical light, so He is theoriginal source of all true knowledge.The Great Light of Masonry is Hisinspired work. Masons are pledged tostrive after more and more Light aslife goes on and should seek above allthings Light Eternal

    Lodge The United Grand Lodge of England was constituted in1717.

    This word comes from the OldFrench, English and Medieval Latin,

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    Term Context Definitionand meant generally a hut, a cottage, agallery, a covered way, etc.; our lobby had the same beginning. Howthe Operative Masons came to employthe term, and just what they meant byit, has never been determined; theyhad a symbolic Lodge, their buildingwas a Lodge, the group of memberswas a Lodge, an assembly of Masonswas a Lodge, and often times thewhole body of Masons was called aLodge. In our own usage the word hasthree technical meanings; the placewhere Masons meet, the assembly of the brethren duly congregated for labor, and a piece of furniture.

    North The Entered Apprentices stay in the North. The north is Masonically called a place of darkness. The sun in his progress through the ecliptic never reaches farther than 2328' north of the equator. A wall being erected onany part of the earth farther north thanthat, will therefore, at meridian,receive the rays of the sun only on itssouth side, while the north as a symbolof darkness will be entirely in shadowat the hour of meridian.

    Plumb Handle the plumb-line to the Apprentice, Brother Warden. Plumbum was the Latin for lead, andwas used also of a scourge with a blobof lead tied to it, of a line with a lead

    ball at its end for testing perpendicularity, etc., the source of our plumb, plumber, plunge, plump,

    plumbago, plummet, etc. A plumb-line is accordingly a line, or cord, with

    a piece of lead at the bottom to pull ittaut, used to test vertical walls withthe line of gravity, hence, by a simpleexpansion of reference, an emblem of uprightness.

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    Bibliography

    1. Introduction to Freemasonry - Entered apprentice - By Carl H. Claudy2. Andersons Constitutions of 1723 - The text of the 1734 edition, transcribed by

    Paul Royster, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, February 14, 2006.3. http://www.cotidianul.ro/de-ce-nu-au-acces-femeile-in-masonerie-147783/4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

    ***********************************************************************d l l

    http://www.cotidianul.ro/de-ce-nu-au-acces-femeile-in-masonerie-147783/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/http://www.cotidianul.ro/de-ce-nu-au-acces-femeile-in-masonerie-147783/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
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