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Evaluarea vederii

Date post: 05-Apr-2018
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    Evaluarea vederii

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    n observarea funciei vizuale se va ine cont de: - Comportamentul vizual n activiti diferite

    - Mobilitate n spaiu familiar i nefamiliar - nelegerea implicaiilor vederee sczute i

    adaptarea sarcinilor

    - Funcionalitatea celeorlalte simuri - Oboseala n timpul evalurilor lungi - Reacia i comportamentul celorlali.Efectele vederii sczute n nvare, activiti

    cotidiene, mobilitate i interaciuni social suntdiferite pentru fiecare persoan.

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    Dezvoltarea funciei vizuale 0-12 luni Contact vizual

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    Privete obiectele care se afl la o distan de 30 cm, fiind interesant maiales de faa uman i realizeaz contactul vizual.

    La 6 sptmni devine interesat de modelele vizuale din jurul lui i se

    realizeaz acomodarea la diferitele distane. Comunicarea vizual este posibil la 8 sptmni.

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    12 sptmni: comunicarea vizual ,determin interacine i ataament, fiecare

    nelegnd fr dificultate aceast relaie.Comportamentul este recunoscut ca fiindreper de dezvoltare i evaluat ca atare.

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    Development of eye-hand coordination andan enlarging visual world

    A three-month old infant studies his hands andfingers for hours. At this age, ocular motorcontrol, including accommodation andconvergence are sufficiently developed for theinfant to start studying his hands; first brieflywhen a hand happens to move in front of hiseyes and then for long periods.

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    A 5-month-old infant enjoys moving the parts of her colorful toy backand forth, which is an effective training of eye-hand coordination and

    head movements. These in turn support the development of the

    awareness of space and distance .

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    he hand-regard behavior is an important step in the development ofeye-hand coordination. Through this activity, the infant begins toassociate information from seeing his hands with the motor functionsof hands and with tactile information when the hands meet at themid-line and are brought to the mouth. As he reaches for and bats attoys, he learns about distances. He learns that toys are the samealthough he observes them from different angles and they lookdifferent. He also starts grasping toys learning more about textureand size. Through these activities he starts to develop the conceptof visual space and visual orientation, which leads to awareness thatsounds are related to things. Acting on objects in the environmentand development of auditory orientation are often delayed in blindand severely visually impaired infants.

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    Between the ages of 3-4 months, most infants follow activities intheir surroundings using all senses and have learned to vary theircommunicative expressions. Both eyes normally look at the sameobject. Squinting may occur only when the child becomes sleepy.

    At five to six months of age, infants train eye-hand coordination inreaching for and grasping everything within reach. They observetheir surroundings, look at toys that fall from their hands, andrecognize favorite toys and the bottle or mug at a distance.

    Visual information is central in communication and interaction duringthe first and second year of life. Infants enjoy watching other infantsand children in different activities and learn by copying expressionsand motor functions. Such activities as playing with water or eatable

    colors are fun for the infants and their parents. These Infant ArtistsClubs have become popular in many countries.

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    Infants watch other infants artisticskills and techniques in a painting

    club for infants.

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    Development of the qualities of vision From the age of 12 weeks many infants have their eyes straight,

    looking at same details but turning inwards or outwards may occurwhen the infant is sleepy. The normal position of eyes during sleepis turning outwards and upwards. Intermittent squint, brief turning ofan eye may occur a few times and then disappear or occurs dailyand requires consultation. In some countries health care nurses andpediatricians say that the infant will grow out this problem with eyemovements and that its best to wait and see. But youshouldnt wait for long, especially if the amount of time the eyestays turned is becoming longer because the infant may be losingbinocularity, which can be difficult to get back. Loss of binocularity

    affects fine adjustment of hand movements.

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    The ability to fixate and follow an object can be used toassess the development of visual functioning. Small ballsare rolled on the floor in front of the infant or balls areattached on thin rods and moved against a contrasting

    background. The childs eye movements are observedand the size of the smallest ball that the child notices isrecorded. Pictures of face and high contrast geometricpatterns interest infants and are therefore interesting asfixation targets. Toys coming from behind the infant are

    used to measure the outer limits of an infants visualfield. A good stimulus is a flickering light, which at 10Hzgives the largest visual field in young infants.

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    Young infants tend to look at stripes if they cansee them as a pattern, i.e. as long as they cansee the difference between the stripes and anequally large gray area. By presenting the infant

    patterns with thinner and thinner linessimultaneously with a gray surface (apreferential-looking situation) the observer canusually see the change in the childs behavior when he no longer sees the stripes. Gratingacuity can be used to follow development ofdetection acuity during the first year.

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    Responses to visual information at low contrast can beassessed with low contrast pictures of face, the HidingHeidi pictures. This is important information forcommunication because shadows on faces are faint, low

    contrast information in motion , especially on the fairNordic faces and on very dark faces. Facial expressionsare also fast movements and therefore infants ability toperceive movements should be assessed. Simple testsituations are not yet available except the Pepi-test,

    which can be downloaded from www.lea-test.fi and thenclick on GAMES on the left side panel.

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    Reaching and grasping Around five or six months, infants hitting and touching objects

    develops to reaching for objects. First it is a swift reflex likemovement as soon as the infants gaze notices somethinginteresting. During the following weeks it becomes more selectivebut it takes months before the inhibitory functions to regulate thismotor activity are fully developed and the movement becomes aslower, well controlled reaching for grasping objects.

    When the awareness of visual space has developed and the childhas learned to coordinate the movements of his limbs, he is ready toreach for and move towards visually interesting objects. From thisstage onwards, the child enjoys playing in small spaces. He

    experiences space visually, tactily, as echoes and with his ownbody, which facilitates the further development of the concept ofspace.

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    The normal milestones of the development of vision Vision has a central role in the development of many

    functions. The most important functions affected duringthe first year are:

    - communication and early interaction, - motor development, - body awareness, - development of spatial concepts and orientation in

    space, - object permanence, and - language.

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    Visual functions and main structures of the eyesare recorded at birth and eye contact at 6 or 8weeks. Ocular motor development is important

    to follow so that strabismus is noticed early,preferably when it is still occurs only now andthen (is intermittent) so that the need oftreatment can be evaluated and started early.

    The stages of the early development of visualfunctions that are easy to observe issummarized in

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    3 6 watches own hands reaches toward, later grasps hanging

    objects observes toys falling androlling away shifts fixation across mid-line visual sphere of attention widensgradually very active in visualinteraction

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    7 10 notices small bread crumbs,touches them

    adjusts the grasp to the size of theobjects interested in pictures, alsostereo images recognizes partiallyhidden objects recognizes familymembers by facial features

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    11 12 knows places at home looks through window and recognizes

    people recognizes pictures, playshide-and- seek can predict adultsgoals of motor actions

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