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Armonia Sunetelor in Lb Turca

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    Notarile lui David PierceArmonia sunetelor13 iunie 2011Comments: 2

    Chiar daca scriu putin, tot mai pun mana pe cate o carte sau material de turca. Deunazi am gasitacest

    documental luiDavid Piercein care face cateva observatii cu privire la gramatica limbii turce.

    Matematician la origine (spre surprinderea mea), m-am bucurat sa vad ca are o contributie mai vasta si

    puteti gasi articolele lui cu privire la limba turca,aici. E formidabila structura pe care o da articolelor sale

    prin rigoare si spirit analitic. Din ce am inteles de pe site si articolul de peWikipedia,Turkish Grammareste

    semnat tot de el.

    Mi-a retinut atentia si mi-a placut in mod deosebit in articolul pe care l-am citit initial, notarea lui cu

    privire la sufixele care respectaRegula armoniei vocalice.

    Adica ce am notat eu in tabel cuSufix Tip a, el noteaza cu @ si ce am notat cuSufix Tip b, noteaza cu#,

    astfel incatformula pentru cazuri de exemplu, devine:

    nominativ: -

    acuzativ: -(y)#

    genitive: -(n)#n

    dativ: -(y)@

    locativ: -d@

    ablativ: -d@n

    Iar declinarea unui substantiv sau pronume se face, in functie de ultima vocala:

    nominativ: ehir

    acusativ: ehiri

    genitive: ehirin

    dativ: ehire

    locativ: ehirde

    ablativ: ehirden

    Voi utiliza pe viitor aceasta codificare, pentru ca mi se pare extrem de utila.

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    Litere de legaturaArmonia sunetelor15 septembrie 2010Comments: 10

    Apar in limba turca unele situatii in care intre cuvantul de baza si sufixe sau doar intre sufixe se insereaza

    o litera, in general, cu scopul de a separa vocalele (sursa). Cele trei litere cu rolul de intermediar sunt: - s -

    , - y -, - n.

    The buffer letter -S- (with the third person -

    he, she, it)

    The -s- buffer letter is only used with the third person suffix -i, -, -u, - meaning his, her, its.The suffix -i - - -u - his, her, its - always takes buffer letter-s- thus taking the form -si -s -s -su when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.

    Simple Noun - Meaning Suffixed Noun Extended Meaning

    kedi - cat kedisi [kedi-si] his/her cat

    emsiye - umbrella emsiyesi[emsiye-si] his/her umbrella

    kap - door kaps[kap-s] his/her/its door

    palto - overcoat paltosu [palto-su] his overcoat

    t - flatiron ts [t-s] his/her iron

    araba - car arabas [araba-s] his/her car

    kuzu - lamb kuzusu [kuzu-su] his/her lamb

    The buffer letter -s- is only used for the third person singular possessive suffix - it is not used in any other


    The buffer letter -Y- (plain nouns only)

    This -Y is used ON PLAIN SIMPLE UNSUFFIXED NOUNS with the suffix -ithe (objective/accusative) the Direct Object Condition.

    The suffix -i, -, -u, - - Direct Object Pointer - always takes buffer letter-y to become -yi, -y, -yu, -y - when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.

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    kedi - cat- becomes - kediyi - the cat (object)banka - bank- becomes - bankay - the bank(object)To reiterate: - The buffer letter-y- is only used with simple nouns ending in a vowel whichhave not already been suffixed. However it takes buffer letter-n- to become -ni, -n, -nu, -n when added as a second suffix to an already extended noun (as follows).

    The buffer letter -N- (extended nouns only)

    This -N is used on ALREADY SUFFIXED NOUNS containing the suffix -i or-si - his, her,its (3rd Person singular possessive suffix)

    Buffer letter-n- is only used with nouns that have already been suffixed.evi - his/her house- becomes - evinde - in his/her house (static position)mutfa - his/her kitchen- becomes - (onun) mutfann - of his/her kitchen (genitive,

    possessor)kedisi - his/her cat- becomes - kedisini - his/her cat (object)kedisi - his/her cat- becomes - kedisine - to his/her cat (motion toward)bankas - his/her bank- becomes - bankasn - his/her bank(object)bankas - his/her bank- becomes - bankasndan - from his/her bank(motion away)This shift of buffer letter - y to n - enables the listener to discern that the word is alreadyagglutinated (extended) by previous suffixes.To reiterate: - The buffer letter-n- is used on nouns which have already been extended by theaddition of a suffix

    The buffer letters -Y- and -N- (with -a/-e)

    These are similarly used as the rules above with the suffix -a, -eto, towards - the MovementToward Condition (Dative)

    The suffix -a, -e - to, towards - always takes buffer letter-y to become -ya -ye - when added to aroot word which ends in a vowel.kedi - cat- becomes - kediye [kedi-y-e] - to the catbanka - bank- becomes - bankaya [banka-y-a] - to the bankbaba - father- becomes - babaya [baba-y-a] - to the father

    The buffer letter-Y- is only used with simple nouns which have not already been suffixed. But ittakes buffer letter-n- to become -ne, -na when added as a second suffix to an already extendednoun. This shift of buffer letter - y to n - enables the listener to discern that the word is alreadyagglutinated (extended) by previous suffixes.

    Buffer letter-n- is only used with nouns that have already been suffixed.kedisi [kedi-s-i] - his/her cat- becomes - kedisine [kedi-s-i-n-e] - to his/her catbankas [banka-s-] - his/her bank- becomes - bankasna [banka-s--n-a] - to his/her bank

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    babalar [baba-lar] - their father- becomes - babalarna [baba-lar-n-a] - to their fatherTo reiterate: The buffer letter-n- is used on nouns which have already been extended by theaddition of a suffix.

    The Buffer Letter -N- (with -da/-de and -dan/-


    Is also used with -de -dain, on, at and -den -danfrom, via, by, through to keep the suffixapart from the noun it modifies.

    The suffixes -de and -dan are added directly to basic nounskedi - catbecomeskedide [kedi-de] - on the catkediden [kediden] - from the cat

    kap - doorbecomeskapda[kap-da] - on/at the doorkapdan[kapdan] - from the door

    They become -nda and -ndan when added to nouns which are already suffixed in order to keepthe suffix apart from the extended noun:kedisi - his/her catbecomeskedisinde [kedi-si-n-de] - on his/her catkedisinden [kedi-si-n-den] - from his/her catkaps - his/her doorbecomeskapsnda[kap-s-n-da] - on/at his/her doorkapsndan[kap-s-n-dan] - from his/her door

    Simple Noun Meaning Extended Noun Extended Meaning

    bankadan from the bank bankasndan from his bank

    bankada in/at the bank bankasnda in/at his bank

    bankalardan from the banks bankalarndan from their bank(s)

    evden from the house/from home evinden from his house/home

    evlerde in the houses evlerinde in their houses

    evinde in his house evlerinde in their house

    evinden from his house evlerinden from their house

    bankasnda in his bank bankalarnda in their bank

    kediden from the cat kedilerinden from their cat(s)

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    kedisinden from his/her cat kedilerinden from his/her cats

    Both the suffixes -de and -den require a buffer -n- when added to an extended word.

    - S

    - este utilizat pentru substantive, cu sufixele -i, -, -u, - (Sufix de Tip (b), vezitabelul)

    pentrupersoana a III-a singular, cu scopul de a marca posesia.

    kedi pisica > kedisi pisica lui/ei

    emsiye umbrela > emsiyesi umbrela lui/ei

    kap usa > kaps usa lui/ei

    palto palton > paltosu paltonul lui/ei

    araba masina > arabas masina lui/ei

    Exceptie: Un caz mai special il reprezinta cuvantul su (apa). Acest substantiv va fi insotit da litera de

    legatura dey si nu des, pentru a evita forma susu. (sursa)

    suyun sesi Sunetul apei

    sm Tamlananlar - There are Four Forms of

    Noun Completion

    A noun may take another one or more nouns as describing nouns in order to make its basicmeaning clear. These noun groups are called Compound Nouns. The describing nouns are called

    Completing Nouns - isim tamlayan (beli r ten)- and the Noun itself is called a Completed Noun -

    isim tamlanan (beli rti len).

    Noun Completion Examples

    Completing (Tamlayan) Completed (Tamlanan) Explanation

    el antas handbag (hand + bag)

    elma aac apple tree (apple + tree)

    su barda water glass (tumbler) (water + drinking glass)

    ortaokul middle school (middle + school)

    babakan prime minister (head + minister)

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    ayakkab shoe (foot + cover)

    Vowel Harmony does not operate as each word is individual.

    (1) - Descriptive Noun Completion - Belirtil i

    isim tamlamas

    Here the Describing (Completing) Noun shows who or what is owned by the Described(Completed) Noun.

    Describing Noun (Tamlayan isim) : is suffixed with -in, -n, -n, -unDescribed Noun (Tamlanan isim) : is suffixed with the third person singular-i, -, -, -u

    Konan bahesi - The garden of the mansion, The mansion's garden .

    Shows that "the garden belongs to the mansion". Describing Noun Suffix -n. Described nounSuffix -si uses buffer Letter-s to keep vowels apart.

    antann fermuar - The zip of the bag, The bag's zip.Shows that "the zip belongs to (is part of) the bag". Describing Noun Suffix -nn uses bufferLetter-n- to keep vowels apart. Described Noun Suffix -.

    Bankann kaps - The door of the bank, The bank's door .Shows that "the door is part of and belongs to the bank". Describing Noun Suffix, -nn usesbuffer Letter-n- to keep vowels apart. Described Noun Suffix, -s uses buffer letter-s to keepvowels apart.

    Kavanozun kapa - The lid of the jar, The jar's lid.Shows that "the lid belongs to the jar". Describing Noun Suffix -un. Described Noun Suffix -.Its terminal -kmutates to softened sonsonant from on addition of a vowel suffix.

    A Special case - su(water)The only noun in Turkish which does not conform to Buffer Letter rules is Su - water. Whetheras a Describing (Completing) Noun or as a Described (Completed) Noun will take the Bufferletter-y- instead of the normal -s-. This may be for avoiding the ugly - "susu".Suyun sesi - The sound of the water, The water's sound - shows that - "the sound comes fromthe water".

    -un - Describing Noun Suffix, -i - Described Noun Suffix, -y - Buffer Letter to keep vowelsapart.Elmann suyu - The apple's juice , The juice of the apple - shows that - "the juice (water)belongs to the apple".-n - Describing Noun Suffix, -u - tamlanan eki, -y - kaynatrma harfi

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    Summary of Noun Completion Suffixes

    1. The Describing Noun suffixes are always -in, -n, -n, -un -(Vowel harmony applies)2. The Described Noun suffixes are always -i, -, -, -u - (Vowel harmony applies).3. Describing Nouns which end in a vowel always use buffer letter -n- where required.4. Described Nouns which end in a vowel always use buffer letter -s- where required.5. The single exception su - water which takes buffer letter -y- as both a Describing or Described


    (2) - Non-Descriptive Noun Completion -

    Belirtisiz isim tamlamas

    Only the Completed Noun takes the suffix of the third person singular-i, -, -, -u . DescribedNouns which end in a vowel always use buffer letter-s- where required.Yaz mevsimi - summer season-i - Completed Noun SuffixK tatili - winter holiday-u - Completed Noun SuffixYolcu gemisi - ferryboat [Lit: traveller boat] -i - Completed Noun Suffix (s - buffer letter forthe third person singular.)Armut aac - pear tree - - Completed Noun Suffix - (c - Softened Consonant)

    (3) - Unrelated Noun Completion - Taksz isim

    tamlamasIn this compound neither Completing or Completed Noun take a suffix. This Compound noun isused for description of the material from which it is made:Plastik sandalye - plastic chairpamuk mendil - cotton handkerchieftahta masa - wooden tabledemir kpr; - iron bridgecam bardak- glass tumblerbenzin depo - petrol dump

    (4) - Chained Noun Completion - Zincirleme

    isim tamlamas

    More than two nouns can be chained together to produce a Compound Nounincir aacnn yapra - the fig tree leaf

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    paslanmaz elik aydanln kapa - the stainless steel teapot's lidderginin kapann resimleri - the pictures of the magazine coverngiliz konsolosluun kaps - the door of the English ConsulateManisa Trafik Polis karakolu - Manisa Traffic Police headquartersyolcu gemisinin gvertesi - the deck of the ferry boat

    Compound Nouns can be plural

    Portakal baheleri - Orange orchardsretmenler toplants - Teachers Meetingocuklarn defterleri- Children's notebooksevlerin kaplarnn zilleri - house door bells

    Compound Nouns can take Suffixes ofCondition

    Kiraz baheleri - the cherry orchards - [subject.]Elma bahelerini - the apple orchards - [object.]Portakal bahelerine - to the orange orchardsSebze bostanlarnda - in the vegetable gardensBelediye parklarndan - from the municipal parksDescribed Nouns which end in a vowel always use buffer letter-n- where required.

    Personal Name Compound Nouns

    If a Personal noun consists of more than one title, it is still counted as a single noun.

    Mustafa Kemal Paa Bulvar - Mustafa Kemal Paa Avenue - Indefinite compound nounMustafa Kemal Paa - Describing NounBulvar - Described Noun

    - Y

    se utilizeaza pentru substantivele care se termina intr-o vocala, iar sufixul care urmeaza incepe tot cu o


    1. substantiv + sufix predicativ

    yi > yiyim. (bine > (Eu) sunt bine.)

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    Hasta > Hastaym. (bolnav > (Eu) sunt bolnav.)

    Fulbolcu > Futbolcuyum. (fotbalist > (Eu) sunt fotbalist.)

    2. substantiv + sufix dativ

    kedi > kediye [kedi-y-e] pisica > pisicii

    banka > bankaya [banka-y-a] banca > bancii

    baba > babaya [baba-y-a] tata > tatei

    Atentie: Litera de legaturay - este utilizate in cazul substantivelor simple, care nu au primit inca

    sufixe. In cazul in care un substantiv are deja un sufix terminat intr-o vocala si urmeaza un altul, care incepe

    tot cu o vocala, in acest caz se utilizeaza ca litera de legatura -n-.

    kedisi [kedi-s-i] pisica lui/ei > kedisine [kedi-s-i-n-e] pisicii lui/ei

    bankas [banka-s-] banca lui/ei > bankasna [banka-s--n-a] bancii lui/ei

    babalar [baba-lar] tatal lor > babalarna [baba-lar-n-a] tatalui

    -N-(cu -da/-de si -dan/-den)

    -da/-de (in, pe, la) si -dan/-den (de, prin). Ambele sunt sufixe de tip (a) vezitabelul:

    Sufixele -da/-de si -dan/-den se adauga in aceasta forma direct cuvantului de baza.

    kedi kedide [kedi-de]kediden [kedi-den]

    (pisica pe pisica de la pisica)

    kap kapda[kap-da]kapdan[kap-dan]

    (usa pe/la usa de la usa)

    Daca sunt deja sufixe atasate cuvantului de baza, atunci -da/-de devin -nda/-nde, iar -dan/-den > -


    kedisikedisinde [kedi-si-n-de]kedisinden [kedi-si-n-den]

    (pisica lui/ei pisicii lui/ei de la pisica lui/ei)


    (usa lui/ei pe/de la usa lui/ei usii lui/ei de la usa lui/ei)

    Este o exceptie pentru aceasta litera de legatura-n-:

    - pronumele interogativ ne(ce) ar fi trebuit la genitiv sa aiba forma ne+ -n- +- in > nenin, dar este utilizat

    ca neyin.

    Armonia consoanelorArmonia sunetelor15 septembrie 2010Comments: 2

    pe langa atentia acordata vocalelor, trebuie luata in seama si o regula cu privire la consoane. avem astfel,

    urmatoarele precizari (sursa):

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    Consonant Mutation

    Changes in Spelling to reflect Changes in Pronunciation

    In Turkish the spelling of the words is changed when the pronunciation changes. Generally this

    does not happen in English, when we change the pronunciation we do not change the spelling. In

    fact we often change the spelling when the pronunciation is the same so that we can recognize

    the meaning.

    A number of words can easily show this -meet vs meat, feet vs

    feat, right vs write, main vs mane, sea vs

    see, and many more. For example, if English were written phonetically, theword " does"should be spelt " duz"

    Turkish however being a phonetically written language will make these changes in spelling. The

    reason for the changes in pronunciation are only for ease of speaking and are only concerned

    with consonants which have voiced and unvoiced equivalents.

    About Voicing of Consonants

    A voiced consonant is one where the voice is used to produce the sound and an unvoiced

    consonant is where the voice is silent and only air is expelled to produce the sound. In Turkish

    when a word ends in a consonant it is usually the Un-Voiced FormThe word for - letter - is - mektup, but - my letter - is - mektubum - the terminal -p haschanged to -b- when it appears between two vowels - see equivalent chart below. This is simplybecause it is easier to pronounce in its Voiced form "b" and in Turkish the spelling must reflectthis change for the rules of phonetics to operate.

    Unvoiced and Voiced Equivalents

    Unvoiced p equivalent to Voiced bUnvoiced equivalent to Voiced cUnvoiced t equivalent to Voiced dUnvoiced kequivalent to Voiced Unvoiced s no equivalent -Unvoiced no equivalent -

    Unvoiced h no equivalent -The last three - s, , h - do not have a unvoiced form, as they are not really voiced consonants,but they do affect the added suffix as they are considered as unvoiced consonants:nefis - delicious - becomes - nefistir - it is (certainly) delicious - [not nefisdir.]sabah - morning - becomes - sabahtan - from morning - [not sabahdan]gne - sun - becomes - gneten - from the sun - [not gneden]

    Thanks to Dan Kneezel for corrections to this section - JG - 17th


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    Examples of ChangesWheneverunvoiced-kterminates a word it nearly always changes to voiced- when suffixesbeginning in a vowel are affixed to that word. The exceptions where no change is made are veryfew and will not be discussed here.

    Words ending in unvoiced -K change to voiced -- when a vowel is added

    kpek - dog kpeim [kpek+im]- my dog

    bacak - leg bacan[bacak + n] - your leg

    topuk - ankle topuu [topuk + u] - his ankle

    bilek - wrist bileimiz - our wrists

    gzlk - spectacles gzlnz - your spectacles

    durak - bus stop duraa - to the bus stop

    grecek - will see greceim - I shall see

    yaptk - we did yaptmz - that which we did

    bardak - glass (tumbler) barda - his glass

    The consonant change from unvoiced-k to voiced-- when adding suffixes is the most widespread mainly

    because so many Turkish words end in a terminal -k

    A Special Case Exception

    Examples where terminal -nkchanges to -ng when adding a vowelIf the word ends in -nk. Then the terminal -kchanges directly to a unvoiced -g as it is totallyimpossible to utter the letter cluster-n plus an added vowel.denk- bale, equationbecomes dengim - my baleahenk- harmony, accordbecomesahengi - its harmonykepenk- shutterbecomeskepenginiz - your shutter

    renk- colorbecomesrengimiz - our colour

    Other Consonant Changes

    Some of the other unvoiced consonants which change to their voiced form in similar fashion areas follows:-p changes to -b in front of suffixed vowels.

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    - changes to -c in front of suffixed vowels.-t changes to -d in front of suffixed vowels - mainly in verb and tense suffixes.

    Further Consonant Mutation Examples

    kitap - book- becomes - kitabn - your bookt - advice - becomes - dm - my advicetat - taste - becomes - tad - its tasteila - medicine - becomes - ilac - his medicineaa - tree - becomes - aacn - the tree's

    Single Syllable Word Roots

    The general rule is that single syllable words do not change their final unvoiced consonants inline with the general rule, hence:

    Unvoiced Roots - Single Syllable Words

    ak - white ak- the white/his white

    at - horse at- the horse/his horse

    ek - addition eki - the addition/its addition

    et - meat eti - the meat/his, her, its meat

    g - migration g - the migration

    ip - rope ipi - the rope

    ka? - how many? kanc? - which one?

    kk - root kk - the root/its root

    ok - arrow oku - the arrow/his arrow

    ot - grass otu - the grass/its grass

    sa - hair sa- the hair/his, her hair

    sap - handle sap - the handle/its handle

    su - fault suu - the fault/his,her, its fault

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    st - milk st - the milk/his, her its milk

    - three - the three/trio

    Exceptions to the rule

    But of course there are some exceptions to this rule where a single syllable word does take on itsvoiced form when adding a vowel suffix

    Voiced Roots (the exceptions) - Single Syllable Words

    but - thigh budu - the thigh/his,her,its thigh

    dip - bottom/base dibi - the bottom/the base/its bottom

    ok - a lot/much/very ou- the lot/his, her, its lot

    gk - sky g - the sky/its sky

    kap - vessel (utensil) kab- the vessel/his vessel

    kurt - worm/wolf kurdu - the worm, the wolf/his wolf

    u - point/tip/end ucu - the point/his, her, its point

    yurt - tent, village yurdu - the tent, the village

    Consonants - observations

    Words can not end with the voicedconsonants - b, c, d, g. Words must end in theequivalent unvoiced forms p, , t, kin order to finish the pronunciation without continuity thushelping the listener to determine word breaks in conversation.

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    Altinkum 1989

    We can see from the photograph that Turkish has changed the English import of the word -Pub (public house) into a Turkish version of the word - Pup - which ends in the equivalentunvoiced consonant -p. So - Sahil Pup - has been written for- Sahil Pub (Beach Pub).

    For example - kebab - is wrong - kebap - is correct - (Although the original form of the word -kebap - is - kebab - in Arabic.)Similarly the name - Mehmed - is wrong - Mehmet - is correct.

    In the restaurant

    (This is a vocabulary entry taken from a Turkish website)

    Mutton Koyun eti

    Lamp Kuzu eti

    Veal Dana eti

    Beef Sr eti

    Source: akyaka.org

    A real-life exampleCan you see where our Turkish writer

    has used his natural un-voiced "-p"

    on the end of a English word

    which should end in a voiced "-b"

    Some Exceptions:

    However there are a few words which do end in voiced consonants such as - ad, od, sac - simplyto make their meaning recognizable from similar word that have a unvoiced consonant at theend. This little group of words is an exception to the general rule that words always end in a

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    unvoiced Consonant.

    ad (isim) - first name (noun) and at (binek hayvan) - horse (riding animal)od (ate) - fire and ot (bitki) - grass (plant)sac (yass demir) - sheet iron and sa (kl) - hair (bristle)

    Proper Names:Proper Names do not change in writing - Memed'in is only valid in spoken language. It shouldbe written as - Mehmet'in - in writing but should be pronounced - Memedin. Another example -Burak'n - (as written) should be pronounced as - BuranAlthough the letter-h- is always articulated and pronounced in Turkish (it being a phoneticlanguage) - The name Mehmet is an exception it is always pronounced as Memed (through

    constant usage).

    Thank you to Bahreddin Cankurt for his corrections and additions to this page - JG - Feb 2006.

    Also thank you to Wojtek Pahhur of Poland for his corrections and additions to this page - JG - May 2007.

    Suffix Mutation

    To reiterate the consonant eqivalents:

    Unvoiced p equivalent to Voiced bUnvoiced equivalent to Voiced cUnvoiced t equivalent to Voiced dUnvoiced kequivalent to Voiced Unvoiced s no equivalent -

    Unvoiced no equivalent -Unvoiced h no equivalent -We saw in the Introduction to Consonant Change that words ending in an unvoiced consonantchange it to the voiced equivalent when a vowel is added - for example as in bilek- wrist -which becomes - bilei - his wrist. However the converse happens when adding a suffix whichbegins with an unvoiced consonant, as the suffix itself must take its own voiced form. ForExample - the suffix meaning -in, on, at - is -de or-da [the voiced form] , but it also changesto -te or-ta [the unvoiced form] when added to words ending in unvoiced consonants - forexample as in ayak- foot - which becomes - ayakta - on the foot. In a similar fashion the suffixmeaning -from - is -den or-dan will change to -ten or-tan - as in - aa - tree - which becomes- aatan - from the tree.

    Mutation of Word ending in Unvoiced ConsonantsThe suffix reverts to its unvoiced form when added to words ending in an unvoiced consonant,

    this includes extended (suffixed) words.

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    Examples of Suffixes changing to Unvoiced


    kitap - book- becomes - kitapta - in the book- [not kitap-da]otobs - bus - becomes - otobst - it was a bus - [not otobs-d]dolmu - dolmush (small bus) - becomes -dolmuta - in the dolmush - [not dolmu-da]ila - medicine - becomes - ilata - in the medicine - [not ila-da]sabah - morning - becomes - sabahtan - from morning - [not sabah-dan]kibrit - match - becomes - kibritten - from the match - [not kibrit-den]Note the last example kibrit which preserves a double letter-tt- when adding the suffix -ten toproduce kibritten. Although Turkish generally abhors two consonants arising together we mustrealize that what we have here is two separate words match and from being joined together - soeach word must retain its full form.

    Thanks to Carl Boswell for correction to the note above - JG Sept.2006

    A Very few Exceptions:There are a few words that historically end in a voiced consonant, for these words that end in a

    voiced consonant - then the suffix retains its voiced form.

    Mutation of words ending in Unvoiced Consonants:Here is an example of the effect of adding a suffix which begins with a consonant.kitapt - it was a book- word ends in unvoiced-p thus - kitap-t (suffix -t takesit unvoiced form from the noun ending.

    The same example when adding a Suffix which begins with a Vowel:kitabnz - your booksuffix -nz begins with a vowel so kitap beomes kitab-nzkitabnzda - in your book- extended word ends in voiced -z thus - kitabnz-da Note that thesuffix reverts to its voiced form when added to words ending in an voiced consonant (thisincludes the plural -ler/-lar which ends in an voiced letter-r), or ending in a vowel - this alsoincludes extended (already suffixed) words and plurals.

    Words ending in an unvoiced consonant or a vowel - then the suffix is also in its unvoiced form

    Some further examples of Consonant Change

    Examples of Nouns changing to Voiced Form when adding suffixes beginning with a vowel orthe Plural Suffix -lar/-lerkpekten - from the dog - kpeinden - (kpe-in-den) - from his dogilata - in the medicine - ilacnda - (ilac-n-da) - in his medicineotobsten - from the bus - otobslerden - (otobs-ler-den) - from the busessokaktan - from the street - sokaklardan - (sokak-lar-dan) - from the streets

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    Note the last two examples above where the voiced-r ending of the plural suffix -ler/-lar forcesthe subsequent suffix to take its voicedform.

    Consonant Mutation Rules1. If the word ends in any of these Unvoiced Consonants - [p, , t, k] :When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel

    - this last letter of the root word changes to its voiced [p > b, > c, t > d, k > ] form:kitap - bookbecomes kitab - his bookkazan - profit becomes kazanc - his profitkilit - lockbecomes kilidi - his lockkpek- dog becomes kpeiniz - Your dog

    2. If the word ends in an Unvoiced Consonant - [p, , t, k, f, h, s, ] :

    When adding a suffix beginning with a consonant- then the suffix consonant changes to its unvoiced Form [d t] :tka - plug, stopper becomes tkatan - from the plugkitap - bookbecomes kitaptan - from the bookkilit - lockbecomes kilitte - in the lockkpek- dog becomes kpekten - from the dogsabah - morning becomes sabahtan - from the morningdomates - tomato becomes domatesten - from the tomato(es)giri - exit becomes girite - at the exitraf- shelfbecomes raftan - from the shelf

    These are the Complete Rules of Consonant Mutation

    1. daca un cuvant se termina in p, , t, ksi urmeaza un sufix care incepe cu o vocala, litera finala a

    cuvantului se schimba

    p b


    t d



    kitap carte

    kitab cartea ei/lui

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    kazan profit

    kazanc profitul lui/ei

    kilit incuietoare

    kilidi incuietoarea lui/ei

    kpek caine

    kpeiniz cainele vostru

    2. daca un cuvant se termina in urmatoarele consoane h, , f, s, t, k, p, , iar sufixul care trebuie

    adaugat incepe cu d, aceasta devine t[d t]. (Un pont, pentru a retine mai usor aceste litere este

    propozitia: hi fstk paa!(fistic deloc, paa!), care le include pe toate.)


    kpek caine

    kpek+ den tenkpekten de la caine

    sabah dimineata

    sabah + dan tan sabahtan de dimineata

    giri iesire

    giri + de te girite la iesire

    3. daca un cuvant care nu e verb se termina cu o vocala urmata de -k, atunci acesta devine - in fata

    unui sufix care incepe cu o vocala:

    ayak > aya piciorul > piciorul meu

    sokak> soka strada > strada mea

    Exceptie: hukuk> hukuku lege

    Armonia vocalica

    Armonia vocalica ste un concept extrem de important pentru limba turca. Pentru a putea conjuga un

    verb sau pentru a declina un substantiv ori adjectiv, e nevoie sa vedem ce regula se aplica. In limba turca

    clasificata ca o limba aglutinanta aceste procese se fac adaugand sufixe la cuvantul de baza, iar

    aceste sufixe sunt supuse unor reguli. Mai precis, vocala din sufix(e) este/sunt determinata(e) de ultima

    vocala a cuvantului de baza.

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    evler case*

    evin casa ta

    eviniz casa voastra

    evim casa mea

    evlerinizin caselor voastre

    evlerinizden din casele voastre

    evlerinizdendiel/ea era din casa voastra

    Evinizdeyim. (Eu) sunt in casa voastra.

    Evinizdeymiim. (Eu) as fi fost in casa voastra.

    Evinizde miyim? Sunt (eu) in casa voastra?(sursa)

    Astfel, cuvantul capata o forma de silabe aproape repetitive, armonioase din punctul de vedere al


    Dupa cum am precizat cand am prezentat alfabetul, sunt 8 vocale in limba turca:

    A E I O U

    Sunt clasificate in mai multe clase:

    - vocale anterioare: e, i, , (A-undottedin engleza)

    - vocale posterioare: a, , o, u(E-dottedin engleza)

    O alta clasificare gasita in engleza este (nu am gasit corespondenta in romana):

    - rotunde: o, u, ,

    - nerotunde: a, e, i, .

    Astfel ca, sufixele din limba turca sunt de doua tipuri:

    Tip (a) care contin vocalele asau e. Astfel aceste sufixe se armonizeaza cu a, daca ultima vocala a cuvantului

    este a, , o, u si cu e, daca ultima vocala a cuvantului este e, i, , .

    Tip (b) - care contin vocalele i, , u, .

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    - aceste reguli de armonie nu se aplica in urmatoarele situatii:

    > cand avem de a face cu cuvinte compuse (sunt considerate cuvinte separate):

    bu+gn>bugn aceasta+zi>astazi

    >cand sunt folosite sufixe invariabile precum -iyor, -da;

    > cand e vorba de imprumuturi din alte limbi;

    > in cazul unor cuvinte vechi trucesti, ca: anne mama sau karde frate/sora, care nu respecta regula

    armoniei, avand forme de tipul: ana si, respectiv, karnda.