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    ROBOTICA

    Robotizarea Fabricatiei II Conf. Dr. Ing. Bogdan MOCAN

    Bogdan MOCAN

    Departamentul Ingineria Proiectrii si Robotica

    e-mail: [email protected]

    Robotizarea fabricaiei I

    Modul 1 - Introducere in domeniul roboticii industriale

    ROBOTICA

    1

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    Robotizarea Fabricatiei I

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    Conf. Dr. Ing. Bogdan MOCAN 2

    2016 Bogdan Mocan Toate drepturile rezervate autorului.

    Acest material este protejat n conformitate cu legile privind drepturile de autor

    (Legea nr.8/1996 cu toate modificrile ulterioare). Nicio parte a acestui material nupoate fi reprodus, sub nici o form i prin nici un mijloc, fr permisiunea n scris dinpartea autorului.

    Pentru utilizarea exclusiv a studenilor care au participat la cursulRobotizarea Fabricaiei I".

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    Robotizarea Fabricatiei I

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    Definiii

    Robotica industrial este tiina i tehnologia roboilor carepresupune:

    proiectarea, realizarea i implemenatrea lor in aplicaiiindustriale.

    Robot industrial este un echipament tehnologic cu funcionareautomatizat, flexibil, adaptabil prin reprogramare la condiiile unuimediu tehnologic complex in care acioneaz substituind una sau maimulte dintre funciile operatorilor umani.

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373Automatically Controlled

    Industrial robots are automated, meaning thatthey operate by themselves with little or nodirect human control. This is achieved through arobotic controller, a computing device that

    calculates robotic movement by reading codeand sending motion instructions to the motorsof the robot.

    The IRC5, ABBs fifth generation robot

    controller. The IRC5 unit is modular and cancontrol up to 36 synchronized axes.

    Note: Each axis of motion is controlled by onemotor. For example, a six axis robot has six

    motors, one at each articulated joint.

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373Reprogrammable

    Industrial robot controllers encode motioninformation to the joint motors by readingmachine code.

    Note: Industrial robot programming code is different than

    the common G code used in CNC programming, and is

    typically proprietary. For example, we use the ABB RAPIDlanguage with ABB controllers.

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373Text-Based Programming (RAPID)

    RAPID code can be edited in most text editors and mark-ups can be imported into apps like Notepad++. However,it is easiest to program within the RobotStudio environment.

    The RAPID editor is similar to the RhinoScript editor, with conveniences like instant semantics checks, argumentpick lists, and syntax coloring.

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373Graphical Programming (RobotStudio)

    Screen shot from RobotStudio. It would be very tedious to use text-based programming for an entire robot program so, just as we do

    with CNC programming, we use a graphical editor that allows us to manipulate and simulate a CAD model.

    The difference here is that we can synchronize the code very quickly without the need to specify a post-processor, as we are usingABB programming software for ABB robot controllers.

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373Parametric Programming (HAL)

    HAL is an example of an industrial robotic programming plugin for Grasshopper which allows users to simulate their robots andgenerate RAPID code in near real time. The advantage is that the code output is directly tied to a parametric model, allowing theuser to bypass tedious importing and re-importing of CAD geometry into RobotStudio.

    Image from hal.thibaultschwartz.com

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373Multipurpose Manipulator

    Industrial robots are different from task-specific fabrication equipment such as 3Dprinters, laser cutters, and CNC mills in that they are intentionally unspecific and, as aresult, can be used for an almost endless range of applications. The arm is fitted withwhat are called end effectors or end-of-arm tooling which are specific towhichever application the robot is intended to perform. Common industrial robotapplications include (but are certainly not limited to):

    Welding

    Laser Cutting

    Painting

    Palletizing

    Machine Tending

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    Multipurpose Manipulator Robotic Welding

    Robotic arms can weld along curves using MIGor TIG welding end effectors, or they can weldat points using spot welding end effectors.Spot welding end effectors can beopen/closed and on/off, whereas MIG/TIGwelders are only on/off.

    Note: Unlike CNC end mills, these tools cant

    be directly touched off, but rather have anoffset distance from the target not unlike a

    laser cutting heads focal length.ABB robotic arm with spotwelding end effector

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    Multipurpose Manipulator Robotic Laser Cutting

    Laser tubes, where wattage generates the laser beam, and the ensuing opticsassembly have to be in a straight line for a robotic arm, versus configured with mirrorturns as in a typical laser cutter.

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    Multipurpose Manipulator Robotic Painting (ASM)

    Robotic painting arms use ASM, or Automated Spray Method, to rapidly and evenlycoat cars and airplane components with paint. These robots are covered in drapedcloth which allows the robot its full range of motion while protecting the arm from

    paint.

    ROBOTICA

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    Multipurpose Manipulator Robotic Palletizing

    Robotic palletizing is used toquickly and accurately stackobjects onto pallets. These robotsare known for long reach, highpayload, and fast speed andtypically require only three axes.

    ROBOTICA

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    Multipurpose Manipulator RoboticMachine Tending

    Robots can be integrated into

    assembly line or othermanufacturing processes. Forexample, a robotic arm may beused to retrieve finished partsfrom a CNC machining centerand reload the machine with

    fresh stock.

    ROBOTICA

    http://youtube.com/v/Hmh2RVvXeoEhttp://youtube.com/v/Hmh2RVvXeoE
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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373 Programmable in 3 or More Axes

    An industrial robotic arm requires 3 axes (or degrees of freedom) because 2 axes

    are required to reach any point in a plane and the third is required to reach any pointin space.

    Think of the 3 axes as yaw, pitch, and roll rather than X, Y, and Z as in a CNC mill.

    ROBOTICA

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373 Typical 6 Axis Arm

    A typical 6 axis arm (as well as our ownIRB 140 arm) have 6 axes that work intandem (interpolate and configure) toreach targets.

    Ranges of motion for the axes are:

    Axis 1 (base twisting) 360o

    Axis 2 (base bowing) 200o

    Axis 3 (forearm flapping) 280o

    Axis 4 (forearm twisting) 400o*

    Axis 5 (wrist flapping) 240o

    Axis 6 (wrist twisting) 800o*

    *unlimited but set to default value

    ROBOTICA

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373- Robot Reach

    Reach is more of an art than a scienceand is based on joint interpolation aswell as joint configuration (decidingbetween multiple possible jointpositions to reach a target). The imageto the left is a typical reach diagram forthe ABB IRB 140. The 810mm frontreach is almost 32in.

    Reach is also dependent on how therobot is mounted.

    ROBOTICA

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373- Robot Load Diagram

    ROBOTICA

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    Robotul industrial conform ISO 8373- Robot Working range/ velocity

    Robot Working range/ velocity - exemple

    ROBOTICA

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